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The Long-Term Effects of Stress on the Brain

In our fast-paced world, stress has become an all-too-common part of daily life. While occasional stress can be beneficial, driving us to meet deadlines or avoid danger, chronic stress is a different story. When stress becomes a constant companion, it can have serious and lasting effects on our brain health. Understanding these effects is crucial to taking proactive steps toward managing stress and protecting our well-being.


In chiropractic we categorize stress in 3 different buckets or the 3 Ts of stress: Traumas, Thoughts, Toxins. Traumas are everything that physically happen to your body and this is the area that people tend to correlate with chiropractic care. Traumas include things like slipping on ice, falling out of the tree stand, physical exertion from work. The next is thoughts, these are negative emotions, anxiety, fear, anger, overwhelm. This is an often-overlooked area and this is typically what people think of when they hear the word stress in general. Finally, is toxic stress, the air that we breathe, the food we eat, the skin products that we put on ourselves and our children. Any one of these stressors can build on the next if we aren’t able to adapt to them (which is the key to overcoming them) pushing us further into the chronic stressed out chronic gas pedal stuck on state.


Stress triggers a series of chemical reactions in the body, primarily driven by the release of stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. These hormones prepare the body for a "fight, flight, or freeze" response, which can be life-saving in short bursts. However, when the brain is continuously exposed to high levels of stress hormones, it can lead to significant changes in brain structure and function. The body begins to get locked in a cycle of their gas pedal being stuck on.


The Hippocampus: Memory and Learning

One of the brain regions most affected by chronic stress is the hippocampus, which plays a critical role in memory formation and learning. High levels of cortisol can damage the hippocampus, leading to shrinkage of this vital brain area. Over time, this can result in:

·         Memory Impairment: Difficulty forming new memories and recalling existing ones.

·         Reduced Learning Capacity: Challenges in acquiring new skills or knowledge.

·         Emotional Regulation Issues: Increased susceptibility to mood disorders like depression and anxiety.


The Prefrontal Cortex: Decision Making and Self-Control

The prefrontal cortex, located at the front of the brain, is responsible for complex cognitive functions such as decision making, problem-solving, and self-control. This is the executive function area of the brain. Chronic stress can impair the functioning of the prefrontal cortex, leading to:

·         Impaired Decision Making: Difficulty making thoughtful, rational decisions.

·         Decreased Self-Control: Increased impulsivity and difficulty resisting temptations.

·         Attention Deficits: Challenges in focusing and maintaining attention on tasks.

With how stress effects this part of the brain it is no surprise that stress itself can cause issues especially in kids with things like ADHD, spectrum issues, and sensory processing disorders.


The Amygdala: Emotional Responses

The amygdala, a small almond-shaped structure deep within the brain, is crucial for processing emotions and detecting threats. When stressed the amygdala really runs the show in the brain and it can turn off the higher functions of the prefrontal cortex. Chronic stress can cause the amygdala to become hyperactive, resulting in:

·         Heightened Anxiety: An increased state of alertness and fear, even in non-threatening situations.

·         Emotional Reactivity: Overreacting to minor stressors and difficulties in managing emotions.

·         Persistent Fear Responses: Difficulty in "turning off" the stress response once the threat has passed.


Neurogenesis: The Creation of New Neurons

Stress also affects neurogenesis, the process by which new neurons are created in the brain. The hippocampus is one of the few areas where neurogenesis occurs throughout life. Chronic stress can suppress neurogenesis, leading to:

·         Reduced Brain Plasticity: Decreased ability to adapt to new experiences or recover from injuries.

·         Cognitive Decline: Gradual deterioration in cognitive functions over time.


Reversing the Effects of Chronic Stress on the Brain

While the effects of chronic stress on the brain can be severe, there is good news: many of these changes can be reversed with the right strategies and lifestyle adjustments. Here’s how:


1. Mindfulness and prayer

Practices like mindfulness and prayer can significantly reduce stress hormone levels and promote a state of relaxation. These techniques encourage the brain to focus on the present moment, which can help to alleviate anxiety and improve emotional regulation. Over time, regular prayer can increase the thickness of the prefrontal cortex and enhance connectivity within the brain, reversing some of the changes caused by chronic stress.


2. Physical Exercise

Regular physical activity is one of the most effective ways to combat the effects of stress on the brain. Exercise boosts the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that supports neurogenesis and overall brain health. Activities like aerobic exercise, strength training, and even yoga can help regenerate brain cells in the hippocampus and improve cognitive functions.


3. Healthy Diet

A balanced diet rich in antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and other brain-boosting nutrients can support brain health and resilience to stress. Foods such as fatty fish, berries, nuts, seeds, and leafy greens can help reduce inflammation and promote the growth of new neurons. Staying hydrated and maintaining stable blood sugar levels can also enhance cognitive function and mood stability.


4. Adequate Sleep

Quality sleep is essential for brain repair and overall well-being. During sleep, the brain undergoes processes that consolidate memories, clear out toxins, and restore energy. You can think of quality sleep as being like an oil change for your brain. When we enter proper sleep neurons will detach and are then bathed in cerebral spinal fluid, the neurons then reconnect. This process strengthens neural connections and the speed of connection. Establishing a regular sleep schedule, creating a restful sleep environment, and practicing good sleep hygiene can improve the quality and duration of sleep, allowing the brain to recover from the effects of stress.


5. Professional Help

Seeking therapy or counseling can be beneficial in developing coping strategies and addressing underlying issues contributing to chronic stress. Therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help reframe negative thought patterns and improve emotional regulation. Neurologic chiropractic adjustments can have a tremendous impact on the brain and the stress that effects the brain. Specific chiropractic adjustments can help build the health reserves of the body and improves the body ability to adapt specifically adapt to stressors as well as stimulate the brake pedals of the body to be able to shift out of the fight or flight state of the body. Additionally, research has shown that chiropractic care can directly stimulate the prefrontal cortex in the brain. When we can stimulate the prefrontal cortex directly it can help by acting as a brake on the amygdala as well.


Chronic stress is more than just a temporary inconvenience; it can have lasting and detrimental effects on brain health. However, by understanding how stress impacts the brain and taking proactive steps to manage it, we can reverse these changes and protect our mental well-being. Remember, taking care of your brain today can lead to a healthier, more resilient tomorrow.




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